It sounds like you’re just starting to think about this process? I don’t know. There are plenty of ways to improve effluent quality. It just depends on what is going on locally that needs to be addressed – and then you address them.
So maybe this will help you get started. It’s something that was once shared with me and I found it to be valuable. There are basically 5 steps to determine what you need to do to effectively manage your effluent.
1 – Characterize your effluents. You need to know what’s produced on your site.
2 – Implement a waste management program. This will help you reduce the strength and the volume of the effluent.
3 – Conditioning and treatment. Look at all of your processes and incorporate where it seems to be appropriate.
4 – Segregation facilities. You need them in order to create the individualized treatment and conditioning options that may be required.
5 – Miscellaneous optimization. Look at what your treatment issues are at the local level and look to apply the previous 4 steps to each of those issues.
Maybe someone else here can offer something more in-depth for you to follow. Peace.
That's a great list.
I'd only add that under 2.) that reduction in effluent volume can cause a slower, more concentrated effluent that becomes easier to treat because your input becomes steady. A corollary to what you say is to stop slug flows or find a means to stop that behavior, perhaps with a storage tank, that feeds out a steady flow.